Kidney Transplant Surgery
Kidneys are two bean shaped organs that are found on the left and right sides of the body. The role of kidney in our body is to clean the blood by removing excess of fluids and wastes from the blood. Additionally, the role of keeping our bones strong is done by kidney only by generating hormones. The failure of kidney is treated with the help of a transplant procedure known as kidney transplantation.
Kidney transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into the patient with end stage renal disease. In the process of kidney transplantation, the diseased kidney is transplanted with a new one. Kidney failure is caused when kidneys lose their filtering ability which results in waste accumulation. Some of the common causes of end stage renal diseases are –
2. Chronic and uncontrolled blood pressure.
3. Inflammation and scarring of tiny filters within the kidneys.
4. Polycystic kidney diseases.
There are different tests done to determine and select the perfect match. Some of the points that should be determined are given below –
1. The donor should be 18-65 years of age.
2. No major illness is an important point.
3. It is preferable to get a kidney from a donor whose blood type matches or compatible to own.
4. Tissue typing test is also done which is also known as human leukocyte antigen typing. A good match implies that there will be less chance of organ reduction.
5. A small sample of your as well as donor’s blood is mixed. This is done to see if antigens in your body will react to the antigens in the donor’s body.
There is a type of transplant which you may need before you need to start dialysis. This type of transplant is called a preemptive transplant. With the help of this transplant, dialysis can be avoided. Getting a transplant not long after kidney has failed is referred to as an early transplant. Both of these methods have can lead to better quality of life. Patients of all ages are suitable to get a transplant. But there are some points which you need to consider. You should not have any kind of infections or cancer. A full evaluation should be done to make sure that you are a good candidate.
In most of the cases, the diseased kidney is not removed from the body as this increases the chance of surgical morbidity. The surgical procedure places the kidney in a location different from the original kidney. General anesthesia is applied and an incision is made on the lower abdomen above the groin. The kidney is placed in the lower abdomen and its blood vessels are connected to the recipient’s iliac artery and vein. The ureter is then connected to the bladder and the drain is inserted into the abdomen to drain any excess fluid that may have been accumulated.
People who have life expectancy of less than five years, uncorrectable heart disease, active substance abuse are not considered as candidates.
Kidney for transfer may come either from living donor or a deceased donor.
Infections, fever, bleeding, blood costs, kidney failing in first year can happen in 5-10 percent of the cases. Death from surgery happens in 1 percent cases.
Living donor transplants lasts on an average for 15-20 years and deceased donor transplants lasts for 15-20 years.